SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
a) Recognition, initial measurement and derecognition
Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the financial instrument and are measured initially at fair value plus, for an item not at fair value through profit or loss, transactions costs that are directly attributable to its acquisition or issue. Regular way purchases and sales of financial assets are recognised on the date on which the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset i.e. the trade date.
b) Classification and subsequent measurement of financial assets
For the purposes of subsequent measurement, the Company classifies its financial assets into the following categories:
i) Financial assets at amortised cost
Financial assets at amortised cost are those financial assets for which:
- the Company’s business model is to hold them in order to collect contractual cash flows; and
- the contractual terms give rise on specific dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
After initial recognition these are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less provision for impairment. Discounting is omitted where the effect of discounting is immaterial.
These are included in current assets, except for maturities greater than 12 months after the end of the reporting period which are classified as non-current assets.
Financial assets at amortised cost comprise statutory deposits, cash and cash equivalents, premium and insurance balances receivable and other receivables and prepayments.
ii) Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income (‘FVTOCI’)
Investments in equity securities are classified as FVTOCI. At initial recognition, the Company can make an irrevocable election (on an instrument-by-instrument basis) to designate investments in equity investments at FVTOCI. Designation at FVTOCI is not permitted if the equity investment is held for trading.
Fair value measurement
For investments traded in organised financial markets, fair value is determined by reference to stock exchange quoted prices at the close of business on the statement of financial position date. Investments in unquoted securities are measured at fair value, considering observable market inputs and unobservable financial data of investees.
Gains or losses on subsequent measurement
Gain or loss arising from change in fair value of investments at FVTOCI is recognised in other comprehensive income and reported within the investment revaluation reserve within equity. When the asset is disposed of, the cumulative gain or loss recognised in other comprehensive income is not reclassified from the investment revaluation reserve to income statement, but is reclassified to accumulated losses/profits.
iii) Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss (‘FVTPL’)
Investments in equity instruments are classified as at FVTPL, unless the Company designates an investment that is not held for trading as at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI) on initial recognition.
Debt instruments that do not meet the amortised cost criteria are measured at FVTPL. In addition, debt instruments that meet the amortised cost criteria but are designated as at FVTPL are measured at FVTPL. A debt instrument may be designated as at FVTPL upon initial recognition if such designation eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency that would arise from measuring assets or liabilities or recognising the gains and losses on them on different bases.
Debt instruments are reclassified from amortised cost to FVTPL when the business model is changed such that the amortised cost criteria are no longer met. Reclassification of debt instruments that are designated as at FVTPL on initial recognition is not allowed.
Financial assets at FVTPL are measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period, with any gains or losses arising on remeasurement recognised in the income statement. Fair value is determined in the manner described in note 5.
c) Classification and subsequent measurement of financial liabilities
Financial liabilities comprise amounts due to insurance and other payables.
Financial liabilities are measured subsequently at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
The Company recognises loss allowances for expected credit losses (ECL) on the following financial instruments that are not measured at FVTPL:
- financial assets that are debt instruments;
- financial guarantee contracts issued;
- loan commitments issued; and
- No impairment loss is recognised on equity investments.
The Company measures loss allowances at an amount equal to lifetime ECL, except for those financial instruments on which credit risk has not increased significantly since their initial recognition, in which case 12-month ECL are measured.
12-month ECL are the portion of ECL that result from default events on a financial instrument that are possible within the 12 months after reporting date.
Measurement of ECL
ECL are probability-weighted estimate of credit losses. They are measured as follows:
- financial assets that are not credit-impaired at the reporting date: as the present value of all cash shortfalls (i.e. the difference between the cash flows due to the entity in accordance with the contract and the cash flows that the Company expects to receive).
- financial assets that are credit-impaired at the reporting date: as the difference between the gross carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows;
- undrawn loan commitments: as the present value of the difference between the contractual cash flows that are due to the Company if the commitment is drawn down and the cash flows that the Company expects to receive; and
- financial guarantee contracts: the expected payments to reimburse the holder less any amounts that the Company expects to recover.
e) Offsetting financial instruments
Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the statement of financial position only when there is a legally enforceable right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.
f) Hedge accounting
IFRS 9 introduces a new hedge accounting model that is designed to be more closely aligned with how entities undertake risk management activities when hedging financial and non-financial risk exposures.
The requirements for derecognition of financial assets and liabilities are carried forward from IAS 39. Financial assets are derecognised when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or when the financial asset and all substantial risks and rewards are transferred. A financial liability is derecognised when it is extinguished.