Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

Provisions are recognised when present obligations as a result of a past event will probably lead to an outflow of economic resources from the Company and amounts can be estimated reliably. Timing or amount of the outflow may still be uncertain. A present obligation arises from the presence of a legal or constructive commitment that has resulted from past events.

Provisions are measured at the estimated expenditure required to settle the present obligation, based on the most reliable evidence available at the reporting date, including the risks and uncertainties associated with the present obligation. Where there are a number of similar obligations, the likelihood that an outflow will be required in settlement is determined by considering the class of obligations as a whole. Provisions are discounted to their present values, where the time value of money is material.

Any reimbursement that the Company can be virtually certain to collect from a third party with respect to the obligation is recognised as a separate asset. However, this asset may not exceed the amount of the related provision.

All provisions are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate.

In those cases where the possible outflow of economic resources as a result of present obligations is considered improbable or remote, no liability is recognised, unless it was assumed in the course of a business combination.

Possible inflows of economic benefits to the Company that do not yet meet the recognition criteria of an asset are considered contingent assets.