Critical accounting estimates and judgements in applying accounting policies

Information about estimates and assumptions that have the most significant effect on recognition and measurement of assets, liabilities, income and expenses is provided below. Actual results may be substantially different.

Claims under settlement reserve, IBNR, ULAE, URR and UPR

The estimation of the ultimate liability (claims under settlement reserve, IBNR, ULAE and URR) arising from claims and UPR made under insurance contracts is the Company’s most critical accounting estimate. These estimates are continually reviewed and updated, and adjustments resulting from this review are reflected in the statement of profit or loss. The process relies upon the basic assumption that past experience, adjusted for the effect of current developments and likely trends (including actuarial calculations), is an appropriate basis for predicting future events.


Fair value of financial instruments

Where the fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities recorded in the statement of financial position cannot be derived from active markets, their fair value is determined using valuation techniques including the discounted cash flow model. The inputs to these models are taken from observable markets where possible, but where this is not feasible, a degree of judgement is required in establishing fair values. The judgements include considerations of inputs such as liquidity risk, credit risk and volatility. Changes in assumptions about these factors could affect the reported fair value of financial instruments.


Inputs, assumptions and techniques used for ECL calculation IFRS 9 Methodology

Key concepts in IFRS 9 that have the most significant impact and require a high level of judgment, as considered by the Company while determining the impact assessment, are:

The assessment of a significant increase in credit risk is done on a relative basis. To assess whether the credit risk on a financial asset has increased significantly since origination, the Company compares the risk of default occurring over the expected life of the financial asset at the reporting date to the corresponding risk of default at origination, using key risk indicators that are used in the Company’s existing risk management processes.

The measurement of expected credit losses for each stage and the assessment of significant increases in credit risk must consider information about past events and current conditions as well as reasonable and supportable forecasts of future events and economic conditions. The estimation and application of forward-looking information will require significant judgment.

The definition of default used in the measurement of expected credit losses and the assessment to determine movement between stages will be consistent with the definition of default used for internal credit risk management purposes. IFRS 9 does not define default, but contains a rebuttable presumption that default has occurred when an exposure is greater than 90 days past due.

When measuring ECL, the Company must consider the maximum contractual period over which the Company is exposed to credit risk. All contractual terms should be considered when determining the expected life, including prepayment options and extension and rollover options. For certain revolving credit facilities that do not have a fixed maturity, the expected life is estimated based on the period over which the Company is exposed to credit risk and where the credit losses would not be mitigated by management action.